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IoT in connected Government helps to deliver better citizen services and provides transparency
Aug. 16, 2017 05:00 AM
IoT in connected Government helps to deliver better citizen services and provides transparency. It helps in delivering contextual and personalized service to citizens, enhances the security, and improves the quality of life. The reference architecture provides guidance for the development of government systems, solutions and application architecture. A reference architecture provides a common framework and allows the design to follow the consistent definitions for the system of interest, its decompositions and design patterns.
The vision of any Connected Government in the digital era is "To develop connected and intelligent IoT based systems to contribute to government's economy, improving citizen satisfaction, safe society, environment sustainability, city management and global need."
In Connected Government, IoT-based applications provides many benefits, which includes,
The reference architecture should be vendor neutral and not specific to any set of technologies. Developing single architecture that addresses the above points and covering all the requirements of the connected government is a big challenge. In this paper, the authors tried to create a reference architecture that addresses all the above observations. It articulates the way to establish the connected government using IoT and its objectives. It covers multiple aspects of the enterprise wide layers at the backend covering government domain specific applications, decision support systems where the data flows from the IoT devices. It also describes the fitment of IoT and its interaction in Connected Government Eco System.
Once the reference architecture is in place, the set of architectural principles, standards, reference models, and best practices ensure that the aligned investments have the greatest possible likelihood of success in both the near term and the long term (TCO) and better Service Delivery to citizens and policy implementation.
IoT Architecture Requirements for Connected Government
IoT Logical Reference Architecture for Connected Government
These layers perform different roles in processing the data flows and control flows based on usage activities across the Government Systems.
These layers are connected by three networks, as shown in Figure below,
Fig 1: IoT Logical Reference Architecture
Edge Layer: This layer consists of IoT devices, IoT Gateway. The architectural characteristics of this layer, including the breadth of distribution, location vary depending on the specific use cases of the government.
IoT devices communicate through proximity network. It is common for IoT devices to communicate using a relatively short range and specialized proximity network, due to power and processing limitations.
An IoT Gateway contains a device data store, storing data from the IoT devices. One or more analytics services to be supported by the IoT Gateway, typically operating on data streaming from the IoT devices or from the device data store. The IoT Gateway consists of applications, which used as control applications.
IoT Gateway helps to connect the devices and implement edge intelligence with different levels of processing capabilities. An IoT gateway provides endpoints for device connectivity and facilitates bidirectional communication with the Government systems.
Platform Layer: This layer receives, processes and forwards control commands from the enterprise layer to the edge layer. It consolidates processes and analyzes data flows from the edge layer. It provides management functions for devices and assets. It also offers non-domain specific services such as data operations and analytics.
Enterprise Layer: It implements Government domain-specific applications, decision support systems and provides interfaces to end-users including operations. The enterprise layer receives data flows from the edge and platform layer. It also issues control commands to the platform layer and edge layer.
Users of the IoT system include both human users and digital users. Human users typically interact with the IoT system using some kind of user device. The user device can take many forms - including smart phones, personal computer, tablet or a more specialized device. In all cases, some form of application interface is offered to the human user, where the capabilities are supplied by an underlying application that interacts with the rest of the IoT system.
Different networks are used to connect these three layers:
IoT based Layered Reference Architecture for Connected Government
The following section highlights the various layers of the IoT based Reference Architecture of the Connected Government.
Fig 2: IoT Usage in Connected Government
a. Access Layer
Users could be both internal and external to Government who interact with channel(s) and have a role to play in overall customer journey.
b. Channel Layer
Citizens, department users and other stakeholders use channels as a medium to interact with government. They engage with government departments over multiple channels both physical and digital.
c. Customer Experience Layer
Collection of presentation components and services. This layer also constitutes the critical systems which are used by governments in engaging with citizens or users.
d. Consumer Layer
The Consumer layer is a gateway for channels and aggregates functionalities through composition and orchestration, mediation, and routing. Key capabilities are:
e. Business and Information Services Layer
The Business and Information Services layer is designed based on "Micro-services" architecture principles and which will provide cross channel capabilities
f. Information Management and Analytics Services Layer
Focus on data ingestion, processing, complex event processing and real-time analytics and insights. A basic service system provides fundamental data services, which include data access, data processing, data fusion, data storage, identity resolution, geographic information service, user management, and inventory management, etc.
g. Enterprise Integration Layer
Enterprise Integration Layer is a key enabler as it provides mediation, transformation, protocol and routing capabilities and acts as a gateway to integrate with Core Government Systems. It also provide aggregation and broker communications.
The business integration and presentation layer is responsible for the integration of the IoT environment into the business processes of an Government System. The IoT solution ties into existing line-of-business applications and standard software solutions through adapters or Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and business-to-business (B2B) gateway capabilities. End users Government to Business (G2B) or Government to Citizen (G2C) scenarios will interact with the IoT solution through this layer. They may use the IoT solution or line-of-business system UIs, including apps on personal mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets.
h. Government Systems Layer
Collection of enterprise back office core systems and applications that house business data.
i. IoT Layer
j. Security: Handles single sign-on, authentication, encryption and authorization capabilities
k. Infrastructure Management : Leverage Infrastructure-as-a-service, Platform-as-service technologies as it requires large computing capabilities
IoT cannot be analyzed or implemented properly without collaborative efforts between Industry, Government and Agencies. Government and Agencies need to work together to build a consistent set of standards that everyone can follow. Connected Government Reference Architecture can manage the large number of devices and volume of data emitted with IoT. This large volume of new information generated by IoT allows a new collaboration between government, industry and citizens. It helps in rapidly developing IoT focused preventive and predictive analytics.
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